Vitamins and Minerals


Vitamin Name Where is it found? Benefits  What happens in deficiency?
Vitamin A Liver, butter, egg yolk, milk, cheese, some fish, carrot, mango, potato, spinach, broccoli, cabbage, fennel and other dark colored leafy vegetables.  Resistance to infections, growth, fertility, development of bone and teeth, better sight.  Sight disorders, disorders of the immune system, fertility disorders, deformation of bones and teeth  
Vitamin D Oily fish, liver and egg yolk.  Regulates calcium and phosphate metabolism, strengthens bones and teeth.  Rickets in babies and children, bone disorders in adults. 
Vitamin E Wheat seed oil, other seed oils, green vegetables, legumes  Antioxidant, prevents oxidation of vitamin A.  Degeneration of nerves.
Vitamin K Green vegetables, algae, spinach, broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, lettuce, chicken and cattle liver  Development of bone and teeth, blood clotting  Bleeding and liver disorders. 
Vitamin B1 Grain and grain products, potato, legumes  Metabolism of carbohydrates and development of nervous system  Heart and vascular disease, nerve disorders, beriberi disease 
Vitamin B2 Yeast, milk, egg, fish, pea, bean, cabbage, bran flour  Energy production, ocular system, hormone synthesis  Inflammation of mouth, cheek and nose mucosa, lesions on skin, cataract 
Vitamin B3 Yeast, liver, heart, kidney, meat products  Energy production, new molecule synthesis  Pellagra, skin diseases, diarrhea, dementia. 
Vitamin B5 Liver, kidney, egg yolk, muscle tissue, fish, milk, yeast, mushroom, rice, wheat bran, green leafy vegetables, legumes. ,  Growth of hair, healing of wounds.  Disorders of hair and nails, gastrointestinal problems, fertility disorders, weight loss, immune system diseases 
Vitamin B6 Meat, chicken, fish, potato, legume, banana, green bean, lettuce  Benefits to nervous and immune systems Pellagra, inflammation of oral mucosa, insomnia, cramps in babies, anemia 
Vitamin B9 Spinach, broccoli, cabbage, lettuce, citrus fruits, grains, soy beans, liver, egg   Speeding up DNA coupling and cell dividing, thus growth  Anemia, gastrointestinal diseases, immune system diseases, growth retardation, heart and vascular diseases, Alzheimer’s Disease 
Vitamin B12 Meat, fish, egg, milk, cheese Synthesis of nucleic acids  Fatal anemia, disorders of the bone, neurological diseases, tingling of hands and feet, reflex retardation, hallucinations 
Vitamin H Liver, meat, fruits. Gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Needed in propionate metabolism and breakdown of amino acid bonds  Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, depression, dry skin, hair loss, eczema 
Vitamin C Citrus fruits, black grapes, kiwi, broccoli, green pepper, green cabbage, parsley, potato, tomato, milk  Strengthens connective tissue, bone, cartilage, teeth and skin. Antioxidant in delaying cancer development and preventing heart diseases. Hemoglobin synthesis  Low physical performance, lethargy, joint pain, bleeding in mucous membranes, teeth loss, anemia, tardy wound healing. 


Vitamins are essential for growth, renewal of cells and energy production. Human body cannot produce vitamins by itself. For this reason, we have to take vitamins from food or vitamin supplements. Vitamins, unlike fats, protein or carbohydrates, can be taken in very small amounts and do not contain calories.




Mineral Source Function
Sodium Table salt  Regulation of osmotic pressure, muscle and nerve stimulus, enzyme activity 
Potassium Grains, spinach, avocado, cabbage, potato, banana  Regulation of osmotic pressure, muscle and nerve stimulus, enzyme activity 
Calcium Cheese, milk, yoghurt, ice cream, legumes  Nerve stimulus, regulation of muscle contractions, teeth and bone growth and development.
Phosphorus Cheese, legumes, milk, yogurt, ice cream  Part of the nucleic acids, carrier of energy, breakdown of carbohydrates 
Magnesium Spinach, fennel, corn, cabbage, beans  Nerve stimulus, development of bone tissue 
Iron Liver, egg, legumes, spinach, grains, meat  Hemoglobin synthesis, oxygen carrying, enzyme component 
Zinc Liver, what, cattle  Insulin synthesis, component of enzymes that break down carbohydrates and proteins 
Copper  Bean, grains, egg yolk, fish  Hemoglobin synthesis, component of enzyme 
Manganese  Grains, legumes, beet, spinach, Brussels sprout  Enzyme activator 
Molybdenum Legumes, grains, walnut  Enzyme component
Cobalt  Legumes, cattle liver, grains  Main component of vitamin B12 
Iodine  Fish, carrot, broccoli, spinach Brussels sprout, lettuce  Component of thyroid hormone 


Minerals change water’s chemical and physical characteristics, as well as, protect hard tissue like bones. Minerals cannot be produced by humans, just like vitamins and needed to be consumed.